To Treat Periodontal Disease

Melanin Removal

Gums Stains

Stains on the gums, or gingival pigmentation, have a multifactorial origin and may be associated with:

  • Endogenous factors due to the activity of melanoblastic cells in each individual.
  • Exogenous factors associated with:
    • Medication use (antimalarials, contraceptives, minocycline, etc.)
    • Smoking
    • Metallic deposits (restorations made of amalgam)
    • Systemic diseases such as Addison’s disease, acromegaly, and even pathological conditions including melanoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and hemochromatosis.

The majority of cases of hyperpigmentation correspond to lesions of endogenous origin.

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Black Gums or Gingival Melanosis

Gingival melanosis or physiological melanotic pigmentation is a condition characterized by a change in the coloration of the gums, resulting in a dark staining caused by the excessive production of melanin by cells called melanocytes.

Melanotic hyperpigmentation can occur anywhere in the oral cavity, but the gums are the most preferred site. This change in gum coloration can often become an aesthetic problem as it may be noticeable when speaking or smiling, affecting an individual’s personality and confidence.

Where do they come from?

These stains typically originate from genetic factors and are more common in patients with darker skin tones. They are more prevalent in smokers and in women who are on contraceptive treatment.

This condition is more noticeable in individuals with a gummy smile since the upper gums are excessively exposed, affecting aesthetics. Its prevalence is around 10% in the population aged 20 to 30 years, being more frequent in females.

Are they pathological?

They do not pose any health problems for the patient. It is purely an aesthetic issue.

How are they treated?

It’s treated through a technique in periodontal plastic surgery called gingival depigmentation, using mucosal abrasion, a simple and painless technique, where melanin deposits and stained epithelium are removed.

Do they reappear?

The repigmentation depends on the biological responses of the patient. It is not precisely known why they sometimes reappear, nor after how much time.

Laser Therapy

Selective photothermolysis involves the use of a laser beam with a wavelength that absorbs melanin and destroys pigmented cells without affecting non-pigmented cells.

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